NCERT Class 9 ScienceChapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | In-Text Questions & Answers | Exercises Questions & Answers | pdf
Q1. Why we need improvement in food resources?
The population of India is increasing day by day. Total population was 1.028 billion in 2001 and it reaches to 1.21 billion after a decade in 2011. This large population undoubtedly needs sufficient food for their survival. Basically we get food from agricultural and animal husbandry. Food is the source of all required proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, fats and vitamins. It makes the way of our body development and growth. Then how can we manage food security for our growing population? We may farm more land to meet up the demand. But it has limitations as India is already extensively cultivated. That is why we need improvement in food resources i.e. increase in production efficiency for both crops and livestock.
Q2. What should we do for improvement in food resources?
India passes through green revolution and white revolution to meet the food demand for its growing population. India also observes four times increase in food production with only 25% increase in cultivable land. Basically India has achieved this by improving crop variety, crop production, & crop protection. On the other side our natural resources are getting used and exposed more for this intensive cultivation. And this is significantly affecting and damaging our natural resources. As a result we are facing the threat of imbalance in our environment.
So we should follow sustainable practices and scientific management in agriculture and animal husbandry. For example – mixed farming, intercropping, integrated farming like combining agriculture with fisheries or bee-keeping or poultry or livestock. We may avoid not only degradation in our environment but also keeping balances in it by following sustainable practices.
Q3. What nutrition we get from different types of foods?
We need carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals for our growth, development and good health. Common sources of carbohydrates are cereals like rice, wheat, millets, maize, sorghum etc. It compensates energy requirement of our body. Various types of pulses such as gram, black gram, green gram, pea, pigeon pea, lentils etc. are the sources of protein.
We get necessary fats from different types of oil seeds like mustard, linseed, sunflower, sesame, ground nut, soya bean, castor etc. Fruits, vegetables and spices provide us with vitamins and minerals. In addition these also contribute small amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Like us, livestock also needs nutrition for growth and development. Generally livestock gets required nutrition from fodder crops like berseem, sudan grass, oats etc.
Q4. What do you mean by Kharif crops and Rabi crops?
Kharif season is the period from the month of June to October. It totally covers the rainy season. Kharif crops are the crops that grow in Kharif season. For example – paddy, pigeon pea, soya bean, maize, cotton, green gram, black gram etc.
Rabi season is the period from the month of November to April. It particularly covers the winter season. The crops that are grown in Rabi season are called Rabi crops. For example – wheat, gram, peas, mustard, linseed etc.
Q5. What are the factors to consider during development of a new crop variety?
Following factors are to be considered during development of a new crop variety.
- Obviously a new crop variety should give a higher yield.
- The new crop variety needs to be improved qualitatively. For example – protein quality in pulses, baking quality in wheat, oil quality in oil seeds, preserving quality in fruits and vegetables etc.
- The new variety of crop should possess good resistance property to biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors like disease, nematodes, insects etc. affect crops yield significantly. Abiotic factors like drought, salinity, water logging, heat, cold, frost etc. also induce stresses on crops.
- Shorter maturity period i.e. sowing to harvesting period is another desirable characteristic. Due to shorter maturity period farmers get multiple rounds of crops in a year. This is indeed beneficial and economical to farmers.
- Also new crop should adapt itself under different environmental conditions.
- Lastly, it should be agronomic to give higher productivity. For example – fodder crops should be tall with profuse branches and cereals should be short for less nutrients consumption.
Q6. What are the process to develop a new crop variety?
Generally there are two ways to develop a new crop variety. The first way is hybridisation. Basically hybridisation refers to crossing between genetically dissimilar crops. Hybridisation may be – A. between different varieties (intervarietal), B. between different species of same genus (interspecific), and C. between different genera (intergeneric). The other way to develop a new variety is modification of crops genetically. It is done by introducing a new gene that meet desired characteristic of crop variety improvement.
Q7. What decides crop production practices?
Answer: Crop production practices basically depend on the financial conditions of the farmers. Farmers may have less or more land. But their farming practices and access to information and technologies depend on their finance. As a result we may categorise farming practices as – 1. no cost, 2. low cost, and 3. high cost. All these production practices are adopted by the farmers as per their purchasing capacity for inputs. Generally more access to inputs results high yields.
Q8. Why plants need nutrients?
Likewise human, plants also need different nutrients for growth, reproduction and susceptibility to diseases. Nutrients are very essential for plants and deficiency of its affects their physiological process.
Q9. What supplies nutrients to plants?
Basically plants get essential nutrients from air, water and soil. Air supplies carbon and oxygen. Water supplies hydrogen and oxygen. Soil supplies thirteen essential nutrients. These are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur, iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum and chlorine.
Q10. What are macro-nutrients and what are micro-nutrients?
Soil supplies thirteen essential nutrients to plants. Out of these, some are required in large quantities and called macro-nutrients. These are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. The other nutrients are required in small quantities and are called micro-nutrients. These are iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum and chlorine.
Q11. What is manure? What are the advantages of manure?
The decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste produce manure. It enriches soil with nutrients and organic matters. It also increases the fertility of soil. Soil structure also improves due to the presence of organic matters. The bulk of organic matters increases water holding capacity in sandy soils. On the other hand it helps in drainage and in water logging in clayey soils. Manure is eco-friendly because it is prepared by biological waste. Thus it helps in recycling of waste. We may prevent excessive use of fertilizers by using more manure.
Q12. How do you classify manure?
Generally we classify manure based on the types of biological waste. It is divided into two types i.e. – A. Compost and vermi-compost, and B. Green manure.
Compost and vermi-compost: Composting is the decomposition of vegetable waste, animal refuse, domestic waste, sewage waste, straw eradicated weeds, farm waste like cow dung etc. in pits. It is rich in nutrients and organic matters. The decomposition of plant and animal refuse by using earthworms is known as vermin-compost.
Green manure: Green manure enriches soil with nitrogen and phosphorus. It is prepared before the sowing of crop seeds. Green plants like sun hemp or guar are grown in the field. Then it is mulched ploughing them into soil. Thus it turns into green manure finally.
Q13. What is fertilizer? What are advantages and disadvantages of fertilizers?
At the present time farmers extensively use commercially produced nutrients i.e. fertilizers. Fertilizers are the source of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. It also contributes higher yields in farming. Fertilizers accelerate vegetative growth i.e. good growth of leaves, branches, flowers and make plants healthy.
As fertilizers are chemically produced, so it deserves some pre and post-precautions for utilisation. Farmers need to consider proper dose and time while using fertilizers. It causes water pollution if gets washed away by excessive irrigation. Excessive and continuous use of fertilizers severely affect soil fertility. Because it harms micro-organisms. It also do not let replenishment of organic matter in soil. That is why we should balance in using manure and fertilizers to maintain soil fertility as well as optimum crop production.
Q14. What is organic farming?
Basically organic farming means minimal or no use of chemicals. There are minimal use of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides in case of organic farming. Organic farming ensures maximum use of manures, bio-fertilizers, re-cycled farm-waste i.e. straw, livestock excreta etc. On the other hand bio-pesticides (neem leaves, turmeric etc.) are used for storage of grains. Organic farming follows healthy cropping system i.e. mixed cropping, inter-cropping and crop rotation. These help in insect, pest and wheat control.
Q15. Discuss various ways of irrigation in brief.
Irrigation is very important for farming as maximum agriculture in our country is rain-fed. Our country has a highly varied climate. So timely monsoon and sufficient rainfall are required for successful crop production. Scarcity or irregular distribution of rains causes droughts. It also badly affects rain-fed farming.
Drought especially affects crops grown in soil that has less water retention capacity i.e. light soils. So ensuring irrigation during growing season is basic need for expected yields. There are many ways for timely supply of water to agricultural lands based the types of water sources available.
Wells: Dug wells and tube wells re the two types of wells from where water is lifted by pump. In case of dug wells, water is collected from water bearing strata. And tube wells tap water from deeper strata.
Canals: In this case, there is a main canal that receives water from one or more rivers and reservoirs. The main canal is further divided into branch canals for an elaborate and extensive irrigation system
River Lift Systems: This system is used in the areas where canal flow is insufficient and irregular due to lack of reservoir release. In that case irrigation is done through direct drawal of water by pumps from available rivers or reservoirs.
Tanks & Other Sources: Generally tanks are small storage reservoirs. Tanks basically intercept and store run-off of a smaller catchment areas. Check-dams are another initiative for rain water harvesting. It is built to store rain water. It also increase level of ground water & reduces soil erosion.
Q16. Discuss various cropping patterns in brief.
There are different ways of cropping patterns to get maximum benefit. These are a) mixed cropping, b) inter-cropping, and c) crop rotation.
Mixed cropping: If we grow two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land, then it is called mixed cropping. For example, we may grow wheat plus mustard simultaneously on the same piece of land. Similarly we may grow simultaneously groundnut plus sunflower, wheat plus gram etc. In this case, if one crop gets affected, other may give some yields. Thus it reduces risk and chances of loss.
Inter-cropping: If we grow two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land in a definite pattern, then it is called inter-cropping. For example, we may grow soyabean and maize by alternating them after few rows on repeated manner. Similarly we can grow finger millet and cowpea. In this case, we select crops based on their nutrition differences. Thus we may ensure maximum utilisation of nutrients. This also prevents spreading of pests and disease from a particular crop to another. As a result, farmers get better returns.
Crop rotation: If we grow different crops in a pre-planned succession on the same piece of land, then it is called inter-cropping. We follow it by choosing different crops based on their maturity period. Also humidity, irrigation facilities etc. influence choice of crops. As a result, a farmer can grow two or three crops in a year on the same piece of land. Thus crop rotation gives better returns to farmers.
Q17. What affects crop production?
Crops get affected by weeds, insect pests & diseases. If these are not controlled & prevented, then it may even cause total loss of crops.
Weeds: Xanthium (gokhroo), Parthenium (gajar ghas), Cyperinus rotundus (motha) etc. are examples of weeds. They grow in the fields with the crops and compete for food, space & light. The crops are forced to share nutrients with these weeds which ultimately afftects crop growth. So it is must need to remove weeds during early stages of crop growth for a good harvest.
♠ Generally insect pests affect the health of crops in following three ways.
♦ Insect pests may cut any parts of the plants i.e. root, stem and leaf.
♥ Insect pests may also suck the cell swap from various parts of the plants.
♠ They may also bore into stem & fruits of the plants.
All these ultimately reduce yields.
Disease in crops: Pathogen i.e. viruses, bacteria & fungi cause diseases in plants. The attacks by pathogen may be through any kind of medium i.e. air, water & soil.
Q18. What should we do for crop protection?
- Remove weeds manually or mechanically during early stages of crop growth.
- Timely sowing & proper seed bed preparation also help to control weeds.
- Different cropping pattern i.e. intercropping & crop rotation also control weeds.
- Deep ploughing in summer destroys weed & insect pests.
- Resistant variety of crops reduces attacks from insect pests.
- Spraying pesticides i.e. herbicides, insecticides & fungicides control weeds, pests & diseases.
- We spray pesticides or treat soil & seeds as per our requirement. But we should be careful because excessive use of pesticides causes environmental pollution. Also that action may become poisonous to many plants & animal species.
Q19. What causes storage loss of grains?
Both biotic & abiotic factors cause storage loss of grains. Biotic factors are insects, rodents, fungi, mites, bacteria etc. Abiotic factors are inappropriate moisture & temperature in warehouses. All these degrade grain quality & discolour them. Also they cause loss in weight & poor germinability. Ultimately all these factors lead to poor marketability of agricultural produce. As a result farmers get less benefit.
Q20. What should we do to reduce storage loss of grains?
Proper treatment of grains before storing them & systematic management of warehouses reduce the storage loss of grains. Following are some measures to reduce loss of grains –
- Strictly clean the grains before storage.
- Dry the grains properly in sunlight first & then in shade.
- Use chemical fumigation to kill insect pests.
Q21. What do you mean by the animal husbandry?
The scientific management of animal livestock is called animal husbandry. This scientific management lists various aspects such as breeding, feeding & disease control. It also includes more humane treatment for livestock despite having some limitations. We do various animal-based farming i.e. cattle farming, sheep farming, goat farming, poultry farming & fish farming. The demand for meat, milk & egg is increasing day by day as per our population growth. So improvement in livestock production is necessary to meet up the growing demand.
Q22. Discuss cattle farming in detail.
Cattle farming serves us two purposes i.e. milk as nutrition & draught labour for agricultural works or farm labour. The various agricultural works are tilling, irrigation, carting etc. There are two species of Indian cattle i.e. 1) Bos indicus, cows, & 2) Bos bubalis, buffaloes. We call female ones as dairy or milch animal & other ones as draught labour.
Cross-breeding of cattle: The period of milk production is called lactation period. Longer lactation period results more benefit to farmers. Generally Indian breed (e.g., Red Sindhi, Sahiwal) has lesser lactation period than foreign or exotic breeds (e.g., Brown Swiss, Jersey). But Indian breeds show excellent resistance to diseases than others. That is why cross-breeding is done to get animal having more lactation period & immunity power.
Shelter facility in cattle farming: Humane farming of cows & buffaloes requires good & clean shelter facility. It also benefits both the health of animals & the production of clean milk. The shelter facility should be well-ventilated roofed sheds for protection from rain, heat & cold. Also the sheds require a sloping floor to stay dry & to facilitate cleaning. Regular brushing is also a need to remove dirt & loose hair.
Food requirements of cattle:
Cattle need two types of food. One is for maintenance requirement & the other is for milk producing requirement. Foods of maintenance requirement support animals to live a healthy life. On the other hand, foods of milk producing requirement is needed during lactation period. Cattle need both fibre rich roughage & concentrates having less fibre. The concentrates are also rich in proteins & other nutrients. We require balancing in both types of food for good health of the animal. In addition, we may add some additives containing micronutrients to promote health & milk output of dairy animals.
Diseases in cattle farming: Like other animals, cattle also suffer from various diseases. The diseases not only affect health but also reduce milk production. Both external & internal parasites cause diseases in cattle. External parasites generally live in skin & cause skin diseases. Internal parasites like worms affect stomach & intestines whereas flukes damage the liver. Cattle also get affected by viruses & bacteria. Generally vaccination is done in advance for the infectious diseases caused by viruses & bacteria.
Q22. What is poultry farming & it’s requirements?
Poultry farming is evolved over the time to meet the growing demand of egg & meat. It helps to raise domestic fowl for egg production & chicken meat. Cross-breeding is also done in poultry farming for improved breed to produce layers of eggs & broiler for meat. For example – cross-breeding of Aseel (Indian breed) & Leghorn (foreign or exotic breed).
The cross-breeding for variety improvement considers following desirable traits ⇒
♠ Improvement in quality of chicks.
♣ Increase in number of chicks.
♥ Commercial production of chicks requires dwarf broiler parent.
♦ Improvement in tolerance to summer or high temperature.
♦ The new breed should have less maintenance requirements.
♥ We should use agricultural by-products as cheap fibrous diet for egg-laying birds.
♣ Reduction in size of egg-laying birds is also desirable.
Q23. Discuss broiler farming in brief.
1. Broiler chickens need vitamin-rich supplementary for it’s better growth rate & feed efficiency.
2. Mortality should be avoided in this type of farming.
3. Broiler chickens require extra care to maintain feathering & carcass quality.
4. These chickens are farmed for meat production.
5. Broiler feed should be protein rich with adequate fat.
Q24. Discuss the requirements of poultry birds farming.
1. Maintenance of temperature & hygienic conditions in housing & feed are highly important in case of poultry farming.
2. Poultry birds are basically farmed for production of eggs.
3. Malnutrition is a case of concern in poultry faming.
4. Poultry feed requires presence of high level of vitamins A & K.
5. Poultry birds get attacked by virus, bacteria, fungi & parasites. That is why it requires proper cleaning, sanitation & spraying of disinfectants.
6. Prevention & control of diseases through vaccination is done to reduce loss of birds during outbreak of disease.
Q25. What are the sources of fish?
Fish is an easily available source of animal protein. We can divide the sources of fish into two types i.e. a) seas, and b) inland sources. India has 7500 km coastline. This coastline & the deep seas beyond it are main sources of marine fisheries. Marine fisheries are pomphret, mackerel, tuna, sardines, bhetki, mullets, shellfishes etc. Some marine fishes are also farmed for better economical gain. Yield is high in this case. Also we can increase yield by using satellites & echo-sounders to locate large schools of fish in seas. The inland sources are canals, ponds, reservoirs, rivers, lagoons and estuaries. Inland fisheries are basically fresh water fishes. For example- Rohus, Mrigals, Catlas, Carps etc. In this case yield is not high like seas.
Q26. Discuss fish culture in brief.
We obtain fish through two ways i.e. a) natural sources, & b) fish farming. Capture fishing is the term used for obtaining fish from the natural sources. On the other hand, culture fishery is the term used for farming of fish. Due to gradual depletion of stock of sea fishes, the demand is met by culture fisheries, a practice known as mariculture. In similar fashion, aquaculture, the term used for farming of fishes in fresh water sources.
Sometimes it is preferred to farm fish with rice crops. We may farm fish in the water in the paddy field. But intensive fish farming requires composite fish culture systems. We may farm both local & imported species in composite fish culture systems. Composite fish culture engages five to six species of fishes in a single fishpond. We select species in such a way that one can not disturb other nutrition. So species having different food habits are selected. For example, we may farm Catlas, Rohus, Mrigals & Common Carps in same fishpond. In this case no one compete with other for foods as Catlas are surface feeders, Rohus are middle zone feeder, and Mrigals & Common Carps are bottom feeders. Generally composite fish culture gives high yield every time.
Q27. What are the problems in fish culture?
Some fishes breed only in monsoon. As a result availability of seeds all over the year reduces. The other problem is availability of good-quality seed. Even seed collected from the wild mixes with other species easily. That is why breeding of these fish is done in ponds using hormonal stimulation. This process ensures supply of pure fresh seed as per requirements.
Q28. Discuss bee-keeping in brief.
Presently honey is widely used all over the world. It has various nutritional properties & also yields economical benefits. Therefore bee-keeping has become nowadays an agricultural enterprise. Farmers now prefer bee-keeping an extra income generating activity. Bee-keeping also requires low investments. Beehives is also a source of wax which is used in different medicinal preparations. Aspiaries are made for commercial honey production.
Bee-keeping uses different varieties of bees for commercial honey production.
These are – a. Apis cerana (known as the Indian bee), b. A. dorsata (known as the rock bee), and c. A. florae (known as the little bee). In addition, farmers use A. mellifera, an Italian variety of bee, to increase the yield of honey. All aforesaid bee varieties are commonly used. But among them, the Italian variety has superior qualities. The Italian bees sting somewhat less & stay for long periods in beehives. They breed well & possess high honey collection capacity.
Followings are taken care of to produce good quality of honey ⇒
1. Availability of adequate quantity of pasturage or flowers for nectar & pollen collection.
2. Good types of flowers as it contributes to improve the taste of honey.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 204
1. What do we get from cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables?
Common sources of carbohydrates are cereals like rice, wheat, millets, maize, sorghum etc. It compensates energy requirement of our body. Various types of pulses such as gram, black gram, green gram, pea, pigeon pea, lentils etc. are the sources of protein. We get necessary fats from different types of oil seeds like mustard, linseed, sunflower, sesame, ground nut, soya bean, castor etc. Fruits, vegetables and spices provide us with vitamins and minerals. In addition these also contribute small amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 205
1. How do biotic & abiotic factors affect crop production?
Biotic factors are rodents, pest, insects etc. It reduces the crop production. Abiotic factors are temperature, humidity, floods, drought etc. It has great impact on crops on the crop production. Sometimes these factors (flood, drought) can destroy the entire crop. Both the biotic & abiotic factors cumulatively can affect the crops. These effects are low germination, poor quality, discolouration, reduction in weight, insect’s infestation etc.
2. What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements?
Desirable agronomic characteristics depend on the types of crops. Good height & excessive branching are desirable in case of fodder crops. But dwarfism is desirable for cereals so that they can consume less nutrients.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 206
1. What are macro-nutrients & why are they called macro-nutrients?
Soil supplies thirteen essential nutrients to plants. Out of these, some are required in large quantities and called macro-nutrients. These are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur.
2. How do plants get nutrients?
Plants absorb water & nutrients through its roots. These fluids & nutrients reach other parts of the plants that are above ground level through the stems of plants. After that plants make their food through photosynthesis. The photosynthesis occurs in the leaves in daylight.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 207
1. Compare the use of manure & fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility.
Manures are organic in nature.
Fertilisers are inorganic in nature.
It enriches soil with organic matters prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta & plant waste. Thus it increases the soil fertility.
Fertilisers are basically inorganic compounds. Excessive use of it is harmful to symbiotic micro-organisms living in soil. It is preferred for short period of time.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 208
1. Which of following conditions will give most benefits? Why?
a. Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.
b. Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation & use fertilizers.
c. Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizers & use crop protection measures.
Obviously the answer is c. Because quality seeds, proper irrigation & fertilizers are helpful for the growth of plants. Crop protection measures cause high yielding of the crops.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 209
1. Why should preventive measures & biological control methods be preferred for protecting crops?
The weeds, insects, pest etc. evidently affect crops. The weeds compete with the crops for food, space & light. Thus they intake nutrients from the soil. As a result, the growth of the crops reduces. Insects & pests affect the health of the crops. Also bacteria, virus & fungi cause the disease in the crops. All these reduce the crop production. So we should take preventive measures for crop protection.
2. What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?
Both the the biotic & abiotic causes losses of grains during storage. Biotic factors are rodents, pest, insects etc. Abiotic factors are temperature, humidity, lack of sunlight. Both the biotic & abiotic factors cumulatively cause loss in weight, poor germinability, degradation in quality, discolouration & reduction in weight.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 210
1. Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds & why?
Basically cross-breeding is used for improving cattle breeds. Cross-breeding is the process of the mating of two animals of different breed within the same species. It gives us new improved variety of desirable traits. Generally Indian breed (e.g., Red Sindhi, Sahiwal) has lesser lactation period than foreign or exotic breeds (e.g., Brown Swiss, Jersey). But Indian breeds show excellent resistance to diseases than others. By cross-breeding between Indian & foreign breeds, we get cattle having more lactation period & immunity power.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 211 | Part-I
1. Discuss the implications of the following statement:
‘It is interesting to note that poultry is India’s most efficient converter of low fibre food stuff (which is unfit for human consumption) into highly nutritious animal protein food’.
Basically we do poultry farming to raise domestic fowl for eggs & meat. Humans can not consume low fibre food stuff. But the poultry fowls can easily consume it. They efficiently convert these low fibre food materials into nutritious & protein-rich animal food. Thus we can use said low-fibre foods as nutrient-rich protein feed for poultry.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 211 | Part-II
1. What management practices are common in dairy & poultry farming?
Common management practices in dairy & poultry farming are –
a. Regular maintenance & cleaning of shelter.
b. We need to choose spacious & well-ventilated space for shelter.
c. Protection from pests & disease.
d. Maintaining supply of specific, balanced & nutritious food.
2. What are the differences between broilers & layers & in their management?
These are younger chicken & smaller than a roaster.
These are special types of hens raised from the day one.
They need protein-rich food with adequate fat for their fast growth.
They need less protein & fat in their food.
Generally broilers do not need much space & lighting.
Layer chickens need enough space & lighting.
We farm broilers for meat purpose. They become ready after 6-7 weeks.
We farm layers for egg production. They start laying eggs after 2 months.
They need special care to avoid mortality & maintain feathering a carcass quality.
They do not need special diet or care.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 213 | Part-I
1. How are fish obtained?
Generally we obtain fishes from two ways. These are natural sources & artificial process. Natural sources are seas & inland sources. The inland sources are canals, ponds, reservoirs, rivers, lagoons and estuaries. Obtaining fish from natural sources is the capture fishing. On the other side, obtaining fish from artificial ways is called culture fishery. It is basically a practice of farming fishes. We can farm fishes both in fresh-water & marine-water ecosystem.
2. What are the advantages in composite fish culture?
a. It increases the survival & yield rate as some selected species of fish is cultured in a single reservoir or pond.
b. The species of fish are selected in such a way that the do not need to compete with each other for food. For example, we may farm Catlas, Rohus, Mrigals & Common Carps in same fishpond. In this case no one compete with other for foods as Catlas are surface feeders, Rohus are middle zone feeder, and Mrigals & Common Carps are bottom feeders.
In-Text Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page No. 213 | Part-II
1. What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production?
Following characteristics of bee varieties are desirable for honey production ⇒
a. Bees should stay in a particular beehive for a longer period of time.
b. Bees should have capacity to obtain high quantity of honey.
c. They should breed well. So high breeding capacity is another desirable characteristic. Also they should have good immunity to infection.
2. What is pasturage & how is it related to honey production?
Pasturages are the flowers from where bees collect their nectar & pollen. So availability of adequate quantity of pasturage or flowers is must for better honey honey production. Also good types of pasturages improve the taste of honey.
Exercises Questions & Answers | NCERT Class 9 Science Chapter 15 | Improvement in Food Resources | Page Nos. 214 - 215
1. Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.
Inter-cropping is one of the method of crop production which ensures high yield. If we grow two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land in a definite pattern, then we call it inter-cropping. For example, we may grow soyabean and maize by alternating them after few rows on repeated manner. Similarly we can grow finger millet and cowpea. In this case, we select crops based on their nutrition differences. Thus we may ensure maximum utilisation of nutrients. This also prevents spreading of pests and disease from a particular crop to another. As a result, farmers get better returns.
2. Why are manure & fertilizers used in fields?
We use manures & fertilisers in soil to supply nutrients to plants. It increases soil fertility. It also ensures good vegetative growth & high crop production. Manures are organic in nature. It enriches soil with organic matters & nutrients. Thus it helps to improve the soil fertility & soil structure. Fertilisers are inorganic in nature. It enriches soil with nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium etc. It gives rise to healthy plants & ensures good growth of leaves, branches & flowers.
3. What are the advantages of inter-cropping & crop-rotation?
Advantages of inter-cropping:
A. Inter-cropping ensure maximum utilisation of nutrients, light & water.
B. This also suppress the weed & prevents spreading of pests and disease from a particular crop to another. As a result, farmers get better returns.
C. Inter-cropping improves the soil health & agro-ecosystem.
Advantages of crop-rotation:
A. A farmer can grow two or three crops in a year on the same piece of land. Thus crop rotation gives better returns to farmers.
B. During crop-rotation, leguminous plants fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Thus it helps in saving on nitrogenous fertilisers.
4. What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?
Genetic manipulation involves two different plant varieties to get a new & better variety. We also call it hybridisation or plant breeding. This process gives us new variety of crops with desirable traits like pest resistance, high yielding, low fertilizer requirement, resistance to environmental stresses etc. As a result, we can reduce the application of insecticides, fungicides & fertilizers. Thus hybridisation improves both quantity & quality of crops. It also reduces environmental pollution.
5. How do storage grain losses occur?
Both the the biotic & abiotic causes losses of grains during storage. Biotic factors are rodents, pest, insects etc. Abiotic factors are temperature, humidity, lack of sunlight. Both the biotic & abiotic factors cumulatively cause loss in weight, poor germinability, degradation in quality, discolouration & reduction in weight.
6. How do good animal husbandry practices benefits farmers?
Animal husbandry is most beneficial to farmers in many ways. We can engage draught animals in agricultural activities for irrigation , tilling, carting etc. Also animal husbandry is a source of good quality milk. In addition we can get animals of better breeds with desirable traits by crossing two varieties.
7. What are the benefits of cattle farming?
Following are the benefits of cattle farming –
a. We can engage draught animals in agricultural activities for irrigation, tilling, carting etc.
b. Cattle farming is a source of good quality & quantity milk.
c. We can get animals of better breeds with desirable traits like resistance to diseases etc. by crossing two varieties.
8. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries & bee-keeping?
We need to take following common steps to increase production in poultry, fisheries & bee-keeping.
a. Proper steps for prevention & cure of diseases.
b. Controlling of temperature.
c. Cleaning regularly.
d. Maintaining proper management techniques.
9. How do you differentiate between capture fishing, mariculture and aquaculture?
It is the method of obtaining fishes from natural sources i.e. seas & fresh-water sources.
It is the process in which marine plants & animals are cultured for their commercial use.
Basically it involves the production of aquatic animals of high economic value. For example - crabs, lobsters, crabs prawns etc.
Improvement in Food Resources – To Be Continued – Improvement in Food Resources